Peru, located just to the south of the Equator on the western shores of South America, with a population of almost 30 million people, Peru is the continents third largest country. To the north are the countries of Ecuador and Colombia, the eastern boarder of Peru is the largest country of the South American continent, Brazil, to the south is Chile and the southeast will find the border of Bolivia, and to the west is the Pacific Ocean.
Peru having some of the most spectacular scenery in all of South America is geographically divided into 3 main regions. The most famous would be the Central High Sierra of the Andes, home to Machu Picchu and the city of Cusco, with extraordinary Inca archeological sites to unbelievable jagged mountain peaks, sheer drop off cliffs and valleys. With frequent earthquakes, flash floods and land slides the Andes are one of the world’s most unstable mountain ranges. The nights and higher altitudes of the western slopes of the Andes will tend to be colder than the coastal areas. With the weather being drier and a rainy season lasting from January through March. The population of the Central High Sierra of the Andes is Quechua speaking Indians.
To the east are Peru’s dense jungles of the Amazon Basin. The eastern slopes of the Andes give way to the jungle and rivers that mark the beginning of the great and mighty Amazon River. The area, surrounded by jungles, is so inaccessible that the area is only thought out by the most adventures of travelers. The capital city of this region Iquitos, with a population of just over 400,000 is accessible by boats traveling up the Amazon River 2300 miles from the Atlantic Ocean or by air. The climate of the Amazon basin is very humid, and experiences a very heavy rainy season from the months of January through April.
Located along the Pacific coast is the region made up of the Atacama Desert. Extending from the western slops of the Andes to the Pacific Ocean is known as some of the most arid piece of land on the planet. Extending from 30 degrees south latitude to just south of the Peru/Chile border the area is home to three of Peru’s largest cities, Lima, Chiclayo and Trujillo are located on this desert plateau. Lima is basically an Oasis on this desert plateau, with more than 25% of the Peruvian population living in Lima. The majority of Limas population is descendants from Europe or Mestizo. The population today stands at just over 8, 200,000.
Until the 16th century the capital of Peru was located in Cusco, the center of the Inca Empire, all this changed when the Spaniards arrived and all but wiped out the Inca civilization and made Lima the capital of Peru in 1535.
Peru’s economy is based mainly on exports, with mountainous areas containing large amounts of mineral resources, gold, copper and zinc to name a few. The coastal waters of the Pacific Ocean contribute to the exportation of fish and fish products.
Flying into Peru? you most likely will be flying into Lima’s Jorge Chavez International Airport, Peru’s largest and main gateway to the world.